The magic lies in the page headers that get sent as the first pieces of content to the client browser. Page headers, while invisible to the end user, contain a ton of useful information and processing suggestions that change the way the browser will act. In this case, the page header we need to look at is the "refresh" command. The refresh header tells the client to refresh to a new location (URL) after a given delay (in seconds).
To demonstrate this, let's take a look at the pages involved. First, we need the page that provides a link to the file download:
<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd"> <html> <head> <title>ColdFusion Download Demo</title> </head> <body> <h1> Download Pictures </h1> <p> <a href="./download.cfm">Click Here To Download</a> </p> </body> </html>
This file does nothing else except take the user to the following page where the delayed download takes place. In our example, the file being downloaded is hard coded into the logic, but this is something could easily be passed in the URL as a file ID or some encrypted value:
<!--- Kill extra output. ---> <cfsilent> <!--- Param the URL variable that will flag whether or not we are actually performing the download or whether we are showing the donwload landing page. Since we are requiring this URL value to be of a certain type, we need to wrap it in CFTry / CFCatch tags when CFParaming it (as a bad param will throw a data conversion exception). ---> <cftry> <cfparam name="URL.download" type="boolean" default="false" /> <!--- Catch any data conversion issues (if the URL value is not a boolean, then an exception will be thrown. ---> <cfcatch> <!--- Set to default false. ---> <cfset URL.download = false /> </cfcatch> </cftry> <!--- Check to see if we are downloading the target file. If we are not, then we are going to shortly refresh. ---> <cfif URL.download> <!--- The file has been requested so now we have to present it. You can do this through either a CFLocation if the file is publically available or through CFContet if you need to stream it from a non-web-accessible file. ---> <cflocation url="./red_hot.jpg" addtoken="false" /> <!--- ... OR ... ---> <!--- The following will NOT be executed because of the above CFLocation; it is here to demonstrate an alternate way of getting at the file. CFHeader / CFContent gives you more control of how the browser will handle the target file, but it is not as server-friendly as the CFLocation tag (uses more processing power since ColdFusion is handling the file stream. ---> <cfheader name="content-disposition" value="attachment; filename=red_hot.jpg" /> <!--- Stream the file to the client. ---> <cfcontent type="image/jpeg" file="#ExpandPath( './red_hot.jpg' )#" /> <cfelse> <!--- We have not started the download just yet. We are going to be displaying the landing page and then momentarily take the user to the download action. In order to do so, we are going to send back a refresh command in the page's headers. 2: The number of seconds we are going to delay. url: The url are the page is going to refresh to. ---> <cfheader name="refresh" value="2; url=./download.cfm?download=1" /> </cfif> </cfsilent> <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd"> <html> <head> <title>ColdFusion Download Demo</title> </head> <body> <h1> Download Pictures </h1> <p> Thank you for your interest in downloading this file. Your download should begin shortly. </p> <!--- In case something is wrong with the header information, provide the user with a manual link to accomplish exactly the same thing that the refresh was going to be doing. ---> <p> If the download does not being in a few seconds, click <a href="./download.cfm?download=1">here</a> </p> </body> </html>
This page will be displayed for 2 seconds before the browser gets taken to the target file (red_hot.jpg). The trick here is the two modes the page is running in. Notice that we are defining the URL value, download. If this is false (which it is by default) then we display the intermediary download page. If this value if true then we either take the user to the target file or prompt them for download.
If the download value is false, meaning we are going to display the intermediary page, we set the refresh command using the ColdFusion CFHeader tag. This will set a header value to be sent to the client browser, in this case a 2 second pause followed by a forwarding to the url, ./download.cfm?download=1. This will take use back to the same page but with a different URL.download value. All header values must be set before any content is flushed to the client (as headers are and can only be the first pieces of data sent to the client).
In this demo, I am using CFLocation to forward the user to the target file. This is the easiest solution and puts much less strain on the ColdFusion server since the actual file transfer is handled by IIS. It does, however, require that the target files be web-accessible since CFLocation can only go to public URLs. CFHeader / CFContent, on the other hand, give you much more control over how the file is handled (inline vs. attachment, suggested file name) and where the files can be located (in a private folder), but they require that ColdFusion handle the file transfer, which can be a drain since it ties of processing power.
Want to use code from this post? Check out the license.
Very cool Ben. Thats a great tip.
Thanks. It was something that I didn't think about very much, so I figured I would touch on the topic.
Neat but why? He he. I was always annoyed at sites that did that. Does it really serve a purpose? Just give me the damn file...I don't want to wait. Just a small rant I guess.
No idea why pages do that... my only guess is that it gives them another chance to server up a page with advertising on it :)
Ben, could the same strategy be used for a "waiting to process" page? For example, www.orbitz.com when you search for flights. Sometimes, it takes up to 1-2 minutes before the system returns...but while you are waiting you are getting a nice "Please wait while we find your flights..." message.
Or is that another whole ball of wax?
I think the same process can be applied there, most definitely. If you know that the processing page can take a long time, send the user first to an intermediary page that loads instantly (or just about) and then you can use the same Header / Location technique to take the user to the processing page. The only real difference, as I can see it, would be that you would have to send more variables via the URL; where we had just a download action flag, you would need to send through all the search criteria.
We've adapted this CFM solution to PHP. We use the intermediate page to notify the users that the security settings of the file's target Microsoft application needs to be altered for the files to operate correctly.
That is a cool use for it. I didn't even think of anything like that.
Can i redirect to another page after the download prompt? I have it set up with the cfcontent/header verbage, but the <cflocation> tag i have after that doesn't seem to execute.
This code when run on IE 7 and higher does NOT download. It gives the yellow bar on top that says "internet explorer blocked this site from downloading fies". Is there a way to bypass this?
Hmm, I have not seen that before (I use mostly Firefox and Chrome). I am not sure what the best away around that would be. I'll see if I can find anything.
Thanks for your code.
I was trying to run this code, and browser ask me to download pdf file which is good, But it was not loading remaining HTML code or you can say I could not see "Thank you Message".
Am I doing something wrong or missing something?
Need your help.
<cfheader name="content-disposition" value="attachment; filename=134.pdf"/> <cfcontent type="application/pdf" file="#ExpandPath( './134.pdf' )#"/> <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd"> <html> <head> <title>Download Now</title> </head> <body> <p> Thank you for your interest in downloading this file. Your download should begin shortly. </p> </body> </html>
It's funny how these old topics come back again and again to visit, isn't it?
I have a slightly different problem. I am trying to download a vCard -- but by using the web browser on a mobile phone (Android or any, really), not on a PC.
I've tried using Ray Camden's cook book version (http://www.coldfusioncookbook.com/download, page 61), I've made sure the server had the MIME type of text/x-card set to vcf, I've tried various other web site solutions (such as http://lab.artlung.com/coldfusion-force-download/), and many different content-type's -- all to no avail.
Lest you think it can't be done, hit this link from your mobile phone or your PC: www.jackfruitdesign.com/old/downloadvcard/ (it worked fine on my Android). I'm guessing they are using PHP and not ColdFusion.
Thanks for any help you can provide!
P.S. Those looking for the vCard spec can find it at http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc6350
I actually am getting pretty close to resolving this issue, but when I try to import the file into my Android's Google contacts area, it says that instead of finding 'BEGIN:VCARD' it is finding '<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC....', so something is shoving this in there somewhere.
How do I keep the "DOCTYPE" declaration out of the output? I've tried cfprocessing suppress whitespace, and cfsilent. CFFLUSH caused an error.
Here's the core code that's working so far:
<cfdirectory directory="d:\www.mysite.tld\www\" filter="forrestGump.vcf" name="fileInfo" type="file">
<cfheader name="Content-Length" value="#fileSizeVCard#">
<cfheader name="Content-Type" value="application/octet-stream">
<cfheader name="Content-Disposition" value="attachment;filename=http://www.mysite.tld/forrestGump.vcf">
<cfheader name="Content-Location" value="#URLEncodedFormat('http://www.mysite.tld/forrestGump.vcf')#">
<cfcontent type="application/octet-stream" file="http://www.mysite.tld/forrestGump.vcf">
Ben...once again, I need help figuring something out and your article comes up first in my search results. And you make it so simple!
Thanks for the help! Always appreciated.
Don't. Don't be a halfwit. I want my download to start right NOW. Not in X seconds as you decree. What a monumental WASTE of human time.
Any wordpress plugin for it?