Ask Ben: Finding The Last Monday Of The Month In ColdFusion
I see that you have been doing a lot of calendar stuff lately and I have question. How can I find the last monday of the month? TIA!
Finding the last monday of the month, or last "whatever" day of the week, just takes a little bit of math. Basically, what you want to do is get the last week of the month. This we can easily do by finding the last day of the month (first day of next month minus one day). From the last day, we can get the last week. Then, from the last week we can get the day of the week we are looking for. Of course, there is nothing about the day, at that point, that requires it to be in the current month. Therefore, all we need to do is compare the month of that day to the month we are looking at. If they are the same, we have our "last day"; if they are different, then by subtracting a week from that day, we will have found our "last day".
That's a bit of a mouthful; it might just be easier to walk through the code:
 <! Get the current month based on the curren date. >
 <cfset dtThisMonth = CreateDate(
 Year( Now() ),
 Month( Now() ),
 1
 ) />

 <!
 Now, get the last day of the current month. We
 can get this by subtracting 1 from the first day
 of the next month.
 >
 <cfset dtLastDay = (
 DateAdd( "m", 1, dtThisMonth ) 
 1
 ) />

 <!
 Now, the last day of the month is part of the last
 week of the month. However, there is no guarantee
 that the "Monday" of this week will be in the current
 month. If Sunday was the last day of the month, then
 Monday would be the first day of the next month.
 Regardless, let's get the date of the target day.
 >
 <cfset dtMonday = (
 dtLastDay 
 DayOfWeek( dtLastDay ) +

 <!
 This is the day of the week that we are
 trying to find (2 = Monday).
 >
 2
 ) />


 <!
 Now, we have a Monday, but we are not exactly sure if
 this Monday is in the current month. if is not, then
 we know it is the first Monday of the next month, in
 which case, subracting 7 days (one week) from it will
 give us the last Monday of the current Month.
 >
 <cfif (Month( dtMonday ) NEQ Month( dtThisMonth ))>

 <! Subract a week. >
 <cfset dtMonday = (dtMonday  7) />

 </cfif>


 <!
 Output the date of the last Monday. CAUTION: Our date
 math above has left us with a NUMERIC DATE, not a
 traditional date/time stamp. Therefore, be careful
 about using things like IsDate() as this numeric date
 will NOT pass these checks.
 >
 <p>
 Last Monday Of Month:
 #DateFormat( dtMonday, "full" )#
 </p>
Running the above code we get the following output:
Last Monday Of Month: Monday, July 30, 2007
Now, we just found the last Monday, but we could easily abstract this out to find any "last day" of the month. Notice that in the above algorithm, we only referred to Monday as being day "2" in one place. By replacing that "2" with a variable, suddenly, we can find any last day of the week  of the month.
Let's wrap that up in a ColdFusion user defined function, GetLastDayOfWeekOfMonth(). I know that function name is a mouthful, but frankly, I couldn't come up with anything better to call it:
 <cffunction
 name="GetLastDayOfWeekOfMonth"
 access="public"
 returntype="date"
 output="false"
 hint="Returns the date of the last given weekday of the given month.">

 <! Define arguments. >
 <cfargument
 name="Date"
 type="date"
 required="true"
 hint="Any date in the given month we are going to be looking at."
 />

 <cfargument
 name="DayOfWeek"
 type="numeric"
 required="true"
 hint="The day of the week of which we want to find the last monthly occurence."
 />

 <! Define the local scope. >
 <cfset var LOCAL = StructNew() />

 <! Get the current month based on the given date. >
 <cfset LOCAL.ThisMonth = CreateDate(
 Year( ARGUMENTS.Date ),
 Month( ARGUMENTS.Date ),
 1
 ) />

 <!
 Now, get the last day of the current month. We
 can get this by subtracting 1 from the first day
 of the next month.
 >
 <cfset LOCAL.LastDay = (
 DateAdd( "m", 1, LOCAL.ThisMonth ) 
 1
 ) />

 <!
 Now, the last day of the month is part of the last
 week of the month. However, there is no guarantee
 that the target day of this week will be in the current
 month. Regardless, let's get the date of the target day
 so that at least we have something to work with.
 >
 <cfset LOCAL.Day = (
 LOCAL.LastDay 
 DayOfWeek( LOCAL.LastDay ) +
 ARGUMENTS.DayOfWeek
 ) />


 <!
 Now, we have the target date, but we are not exactly
 sure if the target date is in the current month. if
 is not, then we know it is the first of that type of
 the next month, in which case, subracting 7 days (one
 week) from it will give us the last occurence of it in
 the current Month.
 >
 <cfif (Month( LOCAL.Day ) NEQ Month( LOCAL.ThisMonth ))>

 <! Subract a week. >
 <cfset LOCAL.Day = (LOCAL.Day  7) />

 </cfif>


 <! Return the given day. >
 <cfreturn DateFormat( LOCAL.Day ) />
 </cffunction>
Now that we have that in place, let's run a little script to test it out across the year:
 <p>
 <! Loop over every month in year. >
 <cfloop
 index="intMonth"
 from="1"
 to="12"
 step="1">

 <! Get last monday. >
 #GetLastDayOfWeekOfMonth(
 "#intMonth#/1/2007",
 2
 )#<br />

 </cfloop>
 </p>
Running that code, we get the following output:
29Jan07
26Feb07
26Mar07
30Apr07
28May07
25Jun07
30Jul07
27Aug07
24Sep07
29Oct07
26Nov07
31Dec07
Notice that our July 30, 2007 lines up with our first example. And, checking my calendar, the rest of the dates line up nicely.
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Reader Comments
The problem with the numeric date due to your date math, could you get round this by just using DateAdd functions instead of doing arithmetic directly on the date object?
@Duncan,
Yes, DateAdd() would get around the formatting issue, however, I am pretty sure that doing date math directly is faster than calling the DateAdd(). Plus, and this is just my personal preference, doing math looks nicer. DateAdd(), to me, adds a lot of "noise" to the code that really isn't adding any benefit (of course, that is only true if you know that you can do date math).... but again, mostly personal preference.
i thought of another interesting way to accomplish the same thing, which was a little more intuitive for me. instead of just subtracting one week if the day that you originally selected happens to fall in the next month, you simply loop "backwards" from the last day of the month by subtracting zero through six from it until you find the day you are looking for. if you were looking for the last sunday, and sunday happens to be the last day of the month, you're golden. otherwise you just work backwards saturday, friday, etc. until you hit your target day.
@Sherrardb,
Yes, that would accomplish the same thing, so if you find that method more intuitive, by all means go for it.
Thanks Ben, Great solution. You saved me from having to think too hard ;)
Thanks a lot, this last day of the month methodology helped me get something done I needed to do very quickly. You rock!
@Curtis,
Glad to help!
Thank you for sharing, Ben. Really learned a great deal!
@Guido,
My pleasure.
how to find on which day of the week the last day of the month falls on
@Ramya,
For something like that, I'd probably just get the first day of the next month, subtract one, and then use dayOfWeek().
Ben,
You Rock!
That is all.
Brad
You can find the last day of any month with just 3 lines of CF code:
<cfset Variables.monthEnd = DateFormat(DateAdd("m",1, Now()), "mm/d/yyyy")>
<cfset Variables.monthEnd = ListSetAt(Variables.monthEnd,2,"1","/")>
<cfset Variables.monthEnd = DateFormat(DateAdd("d",1, Variables.monthEnd), "mm/d/yyyy")>
Hi everybody!!!,
I am figure out, how I get "day of week (name of day)", of this week, last week, last month and the last year. Example:
Today: Wendsday Aug 14, 2013. Note: is 3rd week of month
Last week: Wendsday Aug 7, 2013. Note: I looking for a "wendsday" of the last week
Last month: Wendsday Jul 17, 2013. Note: I'm looking for a wendsday of 3rd week of last month, because THIS week of august is 3rd week )
Last year: Wendsday Aug 14, 2012
As you can see, I am looking for a "same day" in last week, last month and last year.
Could someone help me?
Thanks in advance
Edgar